All over India, an interesting phenomenon can be observed. On one hand, materialism is on the rise, and on the other hand, the popularity of rituals and religious festivals is also on the rise and very much so. Even festivals, like the Kanvar Mela, which involves great hardship, attract huge crowds, most of them young men (called Kanvarias). It shows that in spite of modern life style and western influence, the ancient bond to the spiritual dimension is strong. The majority of Indians still feel connected with the invisible power behind the visible forms and to the Gods who represent this power.
Sitting only in Dehradun where I live, I could have got the impression that the Kanvar Mela is mainly about traffic jams and rowdies who want to have a good time. Several of my English educated, western oriented acquaintances talked condescendingly about the Kanvarias as a big nuisance who give a hard time to the ordinary citizen by taking over highways, creating huge traffic jams.
Yes, among the many million Kanvarias who come to take Ganges water from Haridwar over the first fortnight of Shravan (July/August), there may be some trouble makers, too. Yet from my own experience, the overwhelming majority are amazingly good natured, and they are actually the ones who have a hard time.
The people of Haridwar of course also have to put up with great inconvenience, especially towards the end of the mela, when most of those who walk the whole distance on foot have left the city and when it is the turn of motorcycles, trucks and loud music. Around 50.000 vehicles enter the city on each of the last 3 days. The number of Kanvarias has exploded over the recent years. In 2011, more than 12 million came into a town of some 250,000 inhabitants. This year in 2022, 40 million are expected. The huge crowds everywhere take a toll. All the more, the genuine friendliness and cheerfulness of the Kanvarias stand out. The Haridwar citizens bear the teeming crowds rather calmly. They know the reason why they come and respect it. And many benefit financially as well.
I went to Haridwar some years ago during the early days of the mela and coming in by train overlooking some city roads was a spectacular picture. As my sister called just then from Germany, I gave her a running commentary of the milling crowds, all in orange, and mainly young men. I am sure she could not have pictured it. We simply don’t have an equivalent in the west. Maybe that is the reason why I appreciate and enjoy the atmosphere and my western orientated Indian friends don’t. They seem to be irritated and embarrassed by such display of religious fervour. Maybe they feel that it shows India in poor light. They don’t realise that this living spirituality makes India special in the international community. The western attitude of ignoring and even denying the invisible power behind the visible has made our lives empty and barren. Natural joy, cheerfulness and a solid grounding in human values are lacking without being connected to the spiritual dimension. No surprise that mental depression is so rampant in western societies.
In the west, we try hard to enjoy ourselves and to have a good time during weekends and holidays. There are many options, like going out for meals, visiting a picturesque town, walking around street festivals, going to a lake for a swim, if it is summer or into the mountains for trekking, and of course not to forget, the one thing many people live for – going for the yearly holiday to some far away dream country. And indeed, we might have a good time, provided nothing gets on our nerves. At the same time, a sense of futility creeps in. Back from a holiday, everyone is likely to say how wonderful it was. But for many, it turns wonderful only in retrospective, while boasting before friends.
In India, celebration and enjoyment are ingrained in the culture and mostly connected with the Divine. Almost all festivals have a religious nature. A beer festival like the Munich Oktoberfest is simply out of place. And an ’egg throwing competition’, and competitions about who can eat or drink most in the shortest time span that happen regularly there, leave a bad taste in India.
In India, divine power and sacredness are still taken for real and the tradition of doing tapas (austerities) is still alive. The Kanvar Mela is all in one: enjoyment, bonding with family and friends, adventure, trekking, devotion and rather severe tapas, i.e. sacrificing one’s own personal comfort as an offering to the divine. There is a sense of purpose. In the back of the mind, there is the link with Shiva. “Bum Bum Bhole” and “Jay Shiv Shankar” reverberate. There is still the acknowledgment, if not a sense of wonder and genuine devotion, regarding the invisible power behind the visible forms.
This attitude makes Indians cultured, even if they come from a very poor background. They have certain guidelines they stick to, and being good natured and accommodating towards others is one of them. This is not so in the west. Egoism is the main guideline there and I remember a discussion in a psychology class, where the question came up whether it is good to be selfless.’ No, it is not good, because to express and push through one’s own needs has to be first and foremost to stay psychologically healthy’, was held.
In Haridwar, I watched the unending stream of Kanvarias walking back home, carrying fancily decorated bamboo structures, called kanvars, with Gangajal (Gangeswater). Even in pouring rain they continued walking. Several wore bandages around their calf muscles and ankles. One young man, barefoot, was limping. Even one blister would make every step painful. Two handicapped men pedalled along in their decorated wheel chairs. Some middle aged men did not carry the kanvars but had two containers with Gangajal hanging around their neck. Yet, although tired, they smiled easily and some waved, while I took photos.
Strangely, 30 years ago, there was no Kanvar Mela in Haridwar. Kanvarias have been traditionally associated with Baidyanath Dham in today’s Jarkhand.
Until 30 years ago, the kanvar mela was a local affair in Bihar and West Bengal and still continues to be extremely popular there. Yet since the 1990s, the mela expanded in a surprising way. Har ki Pauri in Haridwar, where a drop of Amrit had supposedly been spilled during the chase after the churning of the milk ocean, became more and more the focus. Millions of Kanvarias now fetch Ganga water from there, carry it in kanvars to their home towns in northern India, and pour it over the lingam in the local Shiva temple at Shravan Shivaratri, which falls on the night before the new moon.
There is flexibility regarding worship in Hinduism and it allows changes in tune with the times. For example, nowadays, many pilgrims make use of trucks and vans, yet in an original way. The trucks are only a support system, as it were. It works like this: Relatives or villagers get together and rent a truck for the pilgrimage. Cooking utensils, provisions, sleeping mats etc. are carried in the back of the truck, and a wooden platform above the luggage is packed with passengers. Once the holy water is taken from the Ganga, it is, however, not placed in the truck, but reverentially carried on foot by the young men of the group in a relay. At least one man at a time runs behind the truck with a Kanvar over his shoulder and when he is tired, another man takes over. This gives a chance to older people and those who are doubtful whether they can walk long distances a chance to be part of the mela.
Undoubtedly, most of the Kanvarias were not used to walking long distances, yet this did not prevent them from making the resolve to go on foot. One group for example had come from Meerut. They planned to cover the 175 km in three days. There were several women, stoically walking along. Apart from the kanvar, many seemed to carry nothing else. Some had a small backpack strapped. One group had a cart packed with children pulled by a cycle, while the adults walked.
From where I watched the stream of pilgrims, they had not yet walked ten kilometres. How will they feel after 100 kilometres? It is certainly an arduous journey. Yet along the route, several Hindu organisations and even some individuals offer food and shelter for the Kanvarias and stands to hang their kanvars on.
“Those facilities were not there in the olden days,” a man from Bihar told me. In 1965, as a 20 year old, he had walked the 120 km from Sultangunj, to Baidyanth Dham. “The path through hilly terrain was very rough, often littered with pebbles as sharp as needles and we all walked barefoot. I had blisters as big as cricket balls”, he remembered. Had he wished for something from Shiva? I asked. “No, I had gone in thanksgiving. I had promised to do the pilgrimage if a certain thing would happen. It did happen and I fulfilled my vow”, he explained.
Many of the Kanvarias may have come to thank Shiva for fulfilling some desire; others may have come to ask for some favour. For many it is a special sort of outing, physically demanding yet, ultimately more fulfilling than simply ‘having a good time’, thanks to the heartfelt connection with their beloved Shiva.
By Maria Wirth
Background of Kanvar Mela
The Kanvar Mela goes back a long time, and was originally connected with two popular Shiva shrines – Baidyanath Dham, also called Deoghar, in today’s Jarkhand and, to a lesser extent, Taraknath in West Bengal. Devotees traditionally worship Lord Shiva with bel leaves and water. The tradition to pour water over the Siva lingam is supposed to have its origin in the churning of the milk ocean by the gods and the demons. Before the kumbh (pitcher) with Amrit emerged, poison wallowed up that threatened to destroy the world. Lord Shiva came to the rescue, swallowed it and kept it in his throat. His throat turned blue and the Gods rushed to pour water over him to mitigate the effect of the poison. And to this day, devotees pour water over the Shiva lingam. It can be done any time and with any water, yet Shravan month, which falls in July/August, is devoted to Shiva and Gangajal is said to be especially dear to Shiva. After all it was He who had cushioned the impact of Ganga’s descent to earth in his matted locks.
During Shravan, devotees traditionally carry Ganges water from the place nearest to those two temples – that is from Sultangunj, which is 120 km from Baidyanath, and from Sheorafuli, which is around 65 km from Taraknath. The pilgrims walk barefoot through difficult terrain, carrying kanvars – usually a bamboo pole with containers dangling from both ends. The Shiva devotees are required to maintain utmost cleanliness, austerity and penance. Once the kanvars contain the holy Gangajal, they are not supposed to be put down on the ground.
Until around 1990, the kanvar mela was a local affair in Bihar and West Bengal and still continues to be extremely popular there. Yet since the 1990s, the mela expanded in a surprising way. Har ki Pauri in Haridwar, where a drop of Amrit had supposedly been spilled during the chase after the churning of the milk ocean, became more and more the focus. Millions of Kanvarias now fetch Ganges water from there, carry it in kanvars to their home towns in northern India and pour it over the lingam in the local Shiva temple at Shravan Shivaratri, which falls on the night before the new moon.
In recent years, the number of pilgrims has increased exponentially. Last year, over 12 Million pilgrims came to Haridwar over the first fortnight of Shravan.
By Maria Wirth
I have been reading your articles and salute you for their content I know a little about you but you have made me proud to be a Hindu
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Thank you for letting me know that these articles help to make you proud of your great tradition.
I would like to thank all who have expressed appreciation on the blog. Please don’t mind if I reply only rarely. I am happy to read those comments. Thank you.
I enjoyed reading the article. However, whether we like it or not, the profile of the occasion is not all spiritual – it has a significant lumpen presence as well comprising wanted criminals and unwanted parasites. Also some of the roadside hospitality stalls thrive on coercive and manipulated funding. All along the Kanwaria routes, the local people suffer on account of loud music, traffic disruptions and short fuse clashes during peak Kanwaria weeks.
You have nicely and intricately observed the Hindu Dharmic culture and described it nicely in your blog. you have nicely admired the hardships of people who are doing this ritual.God bless you.
I have been reading your blog for some months now and compliment you on your Dharmic thoughts.
My views on Kanvar & Kanvarias so far were mostly utilitarian … even while admiring their courage for undergoing such strenuous physical hardships. Utilitarian in the sense of disruption of normal activity due to stoppage of traffic on the highways for more than a week. Also, an impression of hooliganism always carried through.
Your beautiful write up has changed my perspective to a great extent. Some 32 years ago, we had an exhilarating experience of watching spectacular fireworks display in Norfolk (U.S.A.) on the occasion of American Independence Day on July 4. Getting home that day I had a feeling of emptiness – is that all there is to it? What more do I look forward to? You refer to a similar feeling.
Thanks Maria-jee. This is a great piece. I had never heard of Kanwar Mela before. It was truly educative. Keep up the good work.
I had just recently read Scharada Dubey’s BOL BAM: Approaches to Shiva where she talks about the same phenomenon and I am very glad to have come across your point of view as well.
Reading the Ramayan version by Devdutt Patnaik, I got to understand that Kanvar or Kanvad is what was used by Shravan Kumar to carry his parents. He was killed by Dasrath on way to pilgrimage. So carrying of kanvad by kanvadias is also a celebration of devotion to parents; the reason it is carried on shoulder without touching the ground. Pouring of Gangajal seems to be akin to Bhagirath’s action of getting Ganga to come down from heaven to bring moksh to his ancestors.
I have read your Vedic Rishis and other articles. This article on Kanwar Mela is truly informative. It is refreshing to read inspiring article on Hindu Dharma from you. Please look into the website of Dharma Civilization foundation established in Los Angeles, an effort by few to educate all in USC on Dharmic studies.
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Thank you Maria-ji, for letting me know that such a ritual exists and is now a devotion filled Mela.
I was in Delhi for over a decade upto 1984, but barring a fleeting mention once in a while about this ritual, I never thought that this could become such a gigantic spiritual event as it is today.
Thank you again for your appreciation of the “unconventional ways of Hindu spiritual traditions and rituals”. And that freedom of spiritual commitment to The Divine that makes Sanathana Dharma (Hinduism) unique and indestructible.
I am in awe after learning that the devotees returning with Ganga Jal do not allow the Ganga Jal pot to touch the ground until they reach back their village Temple of Shiva. That is the SHRADDHA part of the devotion and heart of the ritual despite having a festival mood while going to Ganga Maiyya.
I love my Bharath Matha !
very nice article, u have good spiritual intellect & clarity of thoughts, good understanding of Hindu Culture too. Great insights on Kanwariyas and the related history. Loved ur article, Thanks Maria
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Reblogged this on Sthapati.
Maria. I can only say: I am proud to be a Hindu. Whenever I read any of your articles, seeing how you get the gist in everything and are capable to see what many eyes cannot see, it increases my hopes for India and sanathana dharma. Thank you for your work and your devotion.
you have imbibed indian fests in you maria. hats off to u
maria, i would like you to actually post on the declining rate of christian followers inn europe and the rise of atheism in europe.. guys like nirmukta.com tries to see hinduism in the same way as they see an abrahamic mindset of theological dogma..hinduism is flexible and not a dogma..could you post some rebuttals or the flaws inherent or the merits in western atheism…i really need someone like you to do a comparative analysis .PLEAASE
never had heard of nirmukta.com. Basically, several of my articles would be rebuttals to their view, wouldn’t they? for example the Diferrence between Hinduism and Christianity/Islam
Excellent madam. Feel blessed to read your Blogs. Many times reading your blog I feel spiritually aroused. We are very fortunate to have you. We western oriented Indians need a westerner to appreciate our Treasures. My respect for my country and religion has increased after reading your Bligs
Thanks Ms Wirth, I learnt something today.
Very well explained. This was started by MATA Parvati.
Great writing – more so for the sympathetic understanding of what ticks the devotees to undertake this …
I have read many articles of u,very collective and knowledgeable; thanks
Thank you so much – as always it is enlightening to read your blog. Your love for this land and knowledge of Hinduism is amazing. You must have been a Hindu in your previous life….May Lord Shiva’s Grace always be with you…
Thank you for describing Kan war Yatra so sympathetically yet so beautifully. At a time when urban India is losing her roots, traditions are kept alive in rural, semi rural and small town India. City people feel angry that their polished car is not able to fly on expressway. But they fail to see the faith, the zeal and readiness to forsake personal comfort that many pilgrims take up in their journey. Har Har Mahadev!
Is there any restriction of Ganga Arati During Kanwar Yatra??
I am not aware of any.
[…] article previously appeared on Maria Wirth’s blog and has been reproduced here with slight […]
Though having heard about kanvar, since childhood & seen some people carrying it through Delhi towards Gurgaon, when I cycled to my school near Delhi Airport T1, I really saw them closely during my stay in Meerut in 1990s. In fact my Grandmother died in Aug 1994 in Dehradun on the day when Delhi Hardwar highway was closed for Kanvar movement, & I had a terrible time reaching Dehradun. Thereafter, every year we observed with appreciation these young men & procession passing through Delhi NCR, & careful too, not to use the roads meant for them. Still the history & reason for Kanvar was not very clear.
Thanks for the detailed informative text on Kanvar. I am motivated to observe it more closely next year.
And it is really wonderful to see, that it is written by a German, with so much knowledge about India & Hinduism.
Our compliments to you Maria for presenting such an accurate picture of Kanvarias. This has been an age old tradition among Hindus and unique to Hinduism. See the devotion to Lord Shva with such hardship to offer Ganga water to Him! I understand you live in Dehradun where I spent my 7 beautiful years from 2010-2017. Close to Haridwar – the gateway to Swarga or Heaven!
Respected Ms maria ji,
Yes, I did enjoy your article on Kanwar Mela and the divine fervor that vibrates in it. I feel extending the perception on the significance of Ganga Jal to be poured on Shiva ling which is a Santani iconography, symbolizing coexistence of mass-and energy, like photons or electrons existing in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves or neurons associated with brain waves.
Shiva is the active form of inactive (akarta) Brahaman. He is the Karata form of Brahaman and giver of various Shastras to keep the universes running and is Mritunjaya or winner over death, Shiva principle maintains the Carnot Cycle of the world wherein Shiva goes on accumulating non-useful energies ( entropy) liberated from various natural spontaneous processes and after concentrating it ( Laser and maser principle) passes it on to systems with low energy or dying systems to keep the cycle of life running otherwise from sink no one can move to its fullest energy potential again. After having utilized the energy sourced from Shiva, one can regain one;s energy to reach again to one’s fullest potential. and the cycle would go on till one cools the random movements of photons and electrons and have them as focused neuron generated photons to help a person eject from the cycle to be one with Shiva. The Ganga Jal is probably used as signifying the coolant for one;s troubled mind when it is poured with devotion on the Shiva Lingam. Devoptional poring of Ganga jal gives for a few seconds an opportunity to be in resonance with the divine force field of Shiva. The pad yatra and hardship of the Kanwariyas is to sensitize them to cool theri distracted minds by various worldly desires and attractions. With Highest Regards Kuldeep
thank you for your comment and sorry that i saw and approved it only now.